The information contained in this web page is provided “as is” and is for general information purposes only. We do not provide this service on regular basis.
Canada Peptides custom peptide synthesis and peptide libraries are offered from 2 to 120 amino acids to include modifications of standard peptide structures, including phosphorylation, methylation, labelling with tags or dyes, cyclization, conjugation with PEG, and incorporation of D-amino acids. Canada Peptides custom peptide synthesis can provide custom peptides as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) salts, acetate salts or hydrochloride salts. Canada Peptides custom peptide synthesis has been used in proteomics, antibody products, lead discovery in drug development, etc. Canada Peptides peptide chemists help you design and synthesize reliable and validated custom peptides.
Canada Peptides custom peptide synthesis services provide custom peptides in several purity levels. Typical purity levels are:
In selecting a custom peptide synthesis company, factors to consider in addition to cost are accuracy, success rate and speed of delivery.
Our peptides are available in all scales, from milligram research scale to multi-kilogram production scale. Canada Peptides provide single custom peptides, multiple peptides and custom peptide libraries in a timely manner at competitive prices.
Canada Peptides’s experienced peptide chemists quickly and efficiently prepare most peptide sequences. Custom peptide synthesis is Canada Peptides’s specialty.
Our chemists have experience and expertise in preparing long peptides in high purity. For example, Canada Peptides has synthesized and delivered 78 to 81 amino acid custom peptides at 98% purity.
During each custom peptide synthesis, Canada Peptides chemists utilize UV monitoring and in-process tests, such as the Kaiser test, to assure each synthesis step is complete before proceeding with the synthesis. If necessary, double coupling protocols are used to assure complete coupling. In addition, heating may be utilized to accelerate slow or difficult reactions. By assuring complete coupling of each amino acid, Canada Peptides chemists maximize overall yield, minimize impurities and reduce the amount of purification required for each custom peptide.
In custom peptides containing hydrophobic sequences where hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone can result in slow or incomplete reactions, Canada Peptides chemists may utilize hydrogen-bond disrupting elements such as pseudoprolines or Dmb-protected amino acids. In some cases, Boc chemistry with in situ neutralization affords higher yields than Fmoc chemistry.
Canada Peptides chemists take steps to minimize racemization of the activated amino acid in coupling which leads to undesired diasteromeic peptides. Racemization during activation is minimized by activating the amino acid residue at reduced temperature and adding HOBt which suppresses the rate of racemization. Cysteine and histidine are especially prone to racemization with uronium activating reagents. When racemization of these residues is especially troublesome, Canada Peptides chemists may use carbodiimide/HOBt activation.
All custom peptide products are provided with a complete quality control package, including HPLC and Mass Spectral Analysis, to confirm the purity and identity of the peptide. From 2 amino acids to 85 amino acids, Canada Peptides can prepare peptides in the scale and purity required. Canada Peptides comply with the most stringent quality control specifications for a reasonable price.
Canada Peptides Custom Peptide Purity Levels
Immunological Grade: suitable for forming polyclonal antibodies
80% or Greater: tissue culture; ligand for affinity purification; non-quantitative antibody blocking experiments
90% or Greater: in vivo studies; bioassays; markers for electrophoresis; monoclonal antibodies
95% or Greater: ELISA; RIA; enzyme substrate
98%: NMR; chromatography standards
Peptide Synthesis Services
Peptide synthesis services that Canada Peptides provides include incorporation of non-standard amino acids, modifications at the N-terminal, C-terminal or side chains, and the formation of cyclic structures. Non-standard amino acids can usually be incorporated into a peptide synthesis with little difficulty. Highly expensive building block, such as isotope-labelled amino acids, are incorporated most efficiently and cost effectively near the N-terminal.
N-Terminal Peptide Modifications
N-terminal modifications are made for a variety of purposes. Some modifications improve the stability of the peptide to proteolytic enzymes or improve the absorption and bioavailability of the peptide. Other N-terminal modifications introduce a dye or tag that allows areas where the peptide accumulates to be visualized. Some modifications are immunoadjuncts to enhance antibody production or linkers to allow conjugation of the peptide to other biomolecules.
List of All Modifications
C-Terminal Peptide Modifications
C-terminal modifications, except for amidation, are less common. They are incorporated either through the utilization of special resins or solution phase reactions after cleavage from the resin. C-terminal modifications can improve the stability of the peptide or alter its interaction with receptors. C-terminal modifications are also used to produce substrates used in enzymatic studies.
List of All Modifications
Internal modifications are incorporated into synthetic peptides by using unusual or specially derivatized amino acids. Some internal modifications, such as D-amino acids, beta-amino acids, and N-methyl amino acids, improve peptide stability to enzymes. Unusual amino acid modifications are often used to optimize peptide binding and selectivity in binding to target molecules or insertion into membranes.. Some internal modifications correspond to post translational modifications in proteins. Some examples are phosphorylation, methylation of lysine or arginine side chains, and the acetylation of lysine side chains. These are often involved in the regulation of biological processes. Amino acids containing stable heavy isotopes are used to label peptides in mass spectra studies.
List of All Modifications
Cyclization of peptides enhances conformational stability, can mimic protein secondary structures and enhance protease stability. Cyclization can be achieved in a number of different ways – by disulfide bond formation betCanada Peptides en cysteine residues, by head-to-tail amide bond formation, by ring-closing metathesis (stapling), or by amide bond formation betCanada Peptides en side chains or a side chain and the N- or C-terminal of the peptide.
Canada Peptides can provide the following services:
Amino Acid Analysis
Large Scale Custom Peptide Production
Canada Peptides can perform custom peptide synthesis in larger scales, from gram to multi-kilogram quantities. Canada Peptides complies with the most stringent quality control specifications at a competitive price.
From our extensive experience in custom peptide synthesis, to our Canada Peptides ll-trained technical team and highest production standards, Canada Peptides hope to be your strong and reliable partner in the life sciences industry.
Custom Peptide Libraries
Custom peptide libraries from Canada Peptides are provided in 96-Canada Peptides ll plates with approximately 2 μmol of lyophilized peptide in each Canada Peptides ll. Canada Peptides can synthesize peptide libraries for drug discovery, high-throughput screening, and SAR studies, including alanine scans and truncation sets. Canada Peptides utilizes optimized protocols and chemistries to ensure consistent purity, quantity, and quality library-to-library and within each peptide library.
Canada Peptides can incorporate most standard peptide modifications within custom peptide libraries. Standard modifications that can be incorporated are unusual amino acids, D-amino acids, C-terminal amidation, N-terminal modification, and biotin, dye or fluorescence labeling on the N-terminal or lysine side chains.
Custom libraries are typically completed in 2-3 Canada Peptides eks. Typical delivery consists of lyophilized peptides in 96-Canada Peptides ll titer plates, peptide location table, and MS and HPLC data.
All products listed through CanadaPeptides.co are intended for research purposes only, The information contained in this website is provided “as is” and is for general information purposes only and is not intended for use in food products or as any type of drug and not intended to treat, prevent, mitigate or cure any disease or medical condition and are for research purposes only. This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. These product are NOT for use as food additives, drugs, cosmetic, household chemicals, or other inappropriate applications.
YOU MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 21 YEARS OF AGE.
The listing of a material on this website does not constitute a license to, or a recommendation for its use in infringement of any patent. All of the products will be handled only by qualified and trained individuals. Under NO circumstances shall/should ANY of these materials be used for but not limited to: in vitro diagnostic, foods, drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, commercial purposes, any general consumptive purpose, and animal and/or human use. All customers are ASSUMED to be legal researchers or licensed researchers.
IF you or your affiliates are NOT then WE DO NOT KNOW THIS and you will be held liable for FRAUD/DECEIT.
Research Chemicals and Peptides: Harmful if swallowed. Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water. During research wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. Keep unprotected persons away. For use only by qualified researchers. Water hazardous. Research in a well ventilated area. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist or gas. Do not ingest or inhale. Use safety glasses face protection. Disposal must be made according to official regulations. Wash hands after handling. Store in a cool dry place. Usual precautionary measures should be adhered to in handling the chemicals & peptides.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SOLUBILIZATION OF PEPTIDES
Start with an appropriate choice of solvent that is both compatible with your experimental procedures and that does not react with or degrade the peptide. The solvent should be dry and degassed. Since most peptide work is small-scale, it is most practical to buy small volumes of dry solvent, rather than attempting to dry it yourself. Determine whether the peptide is acidic, basic or neutral and proceed with solubilization using a small amount of the peptide. Acidic and basic peptides are more soluble at neutral pH than acidic pH.
Peptides are acidic when the manufacturing process is complete, due to the presence of trifluoroacetate (TFA) as the counter ion (a result of the cleavage or purification process). Check whether the peptide is supplied as a TFA salt before you start the purification process.
Short non-hydrophobic peptides (less than 5 amino acids) and peptides containing >25% non-clustered, charged residues and <25% hydrophobic residues will typically dissolve in aqueous solutions.
Simply adding water may dissolve basic peptides. If it does not, first try a drop (10-20 µl) of glacial acetic acid and sonicate or vortex. This may be increased up to 30% acetic acid by volume for problematic sequences. Addition of base can also promote oxidation of cysteines to the disulphide so deoxygenated buffers should always be used. For basic peptides with net charge of +1 or greater, an acidic solution will be needed.
Acidic peptides with net charge of -1 or greater should be dissolved in a small amount of basic solvent such as 0.1% ammonium hydroxide or ammonium bicarbonate and diluted to the required stock concentration with water. The exception is peptides containing Cys, as disulphide bonds may form at alkaline pH.
Neutral or hydrophobic peptides with a net charge of zero can sometimes be brought into solution by addition of base, but often a gel forms. Generally this gel will only respond to dilution with higher amounts of distilled, deionized water, along with sonication and vortexing.
Peptides that are >50% hydrophobic may be difficult to dissolve in water alone and should be dissolved in a small amount of organic solvent, for example acetonitrile, methanol, isopropanol, dimethyl suphoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF). This should be added drop wise, followed by sonication and vortexing after every drop until the peptide dissolves. The drop wise addition of the organic solvent can also be used for peptides that do not respond to pH adjustment. Note that some cell culture based assays may not react well to DMSO, so a different solvent should be considered.
Peptides that are >75% hydrophobic are unlikely to dissolve in aqueous solution alone and may require solubilization in a stronger solvent such as TFA or formic acid and at high concentration. The peptide may precipitate out when aqueous buffer is added. These conditions may not be compatible with some cell culture based experiments.
Organic solvents at certain concentrations are incompatible with some biochemical assays. A small amount of DMSO should be compatible with most immunological assays, but avoid DMSO if the peptide contains Methionine, Cysteine or Tryptophan due to sulphoxide or disulphide formation. These peptides should be prepared using 1,2-ethanediol (EDT) or dithiothreitol (DTT) in order to prevent oxidation. Oxygen-free water or buffers, or DTT are recommended for solubilizaton.Note, if DMSO solvent is at all wet it will not freeze at -20°C, so freezing at -30°C is recommended. DMSO is hygroscopic and will adsorb water if subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. To minimize these issues, buy small volumes of dry DMSO for solubilzation purposes.
Peptides that are prone to aggregation may require strong denaturants (e.g., 6M urea or guanidine hydrochloride), which may then be able to be diluted.
If peptides are to be used in cellular assays, start by making a concentrated stock solution e.g., 5-10 mM, or 5-10mg/ml. Dilute the peptides into physiological buffer for use, such that the original solvent is present at no more than 0.1% in the final working solution. Diluted peptide solutions may also be filter-sterilized (0.22mm) if they are to be added to sterile cultures.
Store lyophilized protein at -20 °C. Aliquot the product after reconstitution to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles.
Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4 °C for a limited period of time. The lyophilized protein remains stable until the expiry date when stored at -20 °C.
WARNING! LABORATORY RESEARCH USE ONLY.
For research/laboratory in vitro use
Only Laboratory Reagents
NOT for Human
NOT for Animals
NOT for Diagnostic
We strongly recommend that you follow these guidelines to ensure that substances retain their quality and potency.
Storage of Reconstituted Peptides
ALWAYS allow peptides to come to room temperature before reconstituting with water. This will avoid most cases of peptides becoming cloudy.
Allow peptides to warm to room temperature before opening the vial to prevent condensation of atmospheric moisture onto the peptide, making it easier to handle and weigh. It is recommended to dissolve only the required amount into a buffer. The remainder of the stock should be stored dry at -20°C.
Once the peptides have been mixed or reconstituted into a liquid solution they must be refrigerated at a temperature of between 2-8c. If stored at room temperature they may begin to degrade after as little as 24 hours. Therefore we recommend storing them in the fridge as soon as possible after mixing. Stored in the fridge they will remain potent for around 8 weeks before beginning to degrade. Do not shake peptides aggressively as this can ruin them. Store peptides in sealed containers away from food.
Storage in buffer is not recommended. Peptides in solution are only stable for up to one week when stored at 4°C.
Storage of Lyophilised (freeze-dried) Peptides
The peptides we sell come in a lyophilised, freeze-dried form. Like this, the peptides will remain stable for around 30 days at room temperature. If there not going to be used within this time then they must be stored in a freezer at a temperature of around -20c where they will remain stable for approximately 48 months.
If peptides are to be used frequently, solubilize and aliquot, then store frozen at -20°C to avoid freeze-thaw cycles. Typically the peptide will remain stable for several months.
For short term storage (up to 2 months), freeze at -20°C; for long term storage -80°C is recommended.
Ideally, vials for peptide storage should be high-density, polypropylene tubes, airtight, well-sealed with a screw cap with an O-ring. Avoid storing or making up peptide solutions in polystyrene containers as they adsorb peptide material to their surface.
Peptides containing Cys, Trp or Met are susceptible to oxidation. It is advisable to blanket the peptide with argon or nitrogen when the vial is opened. Buffers used to dissolve these peptides should be degassed. These peptides have limited stability; long-term storage is not recommended.
Hygroscopic peptides containing several charged residues (D, E, K, R, H) may take up water when exposed to air. To prevent this, argon or nitrogen may be used to blanket the peptide when the vial is opened. If inert gases are unavailable, then storage in a desiccator is a viable alternative. Before use, bring samples to room temperature in a desiccator.
Please ensure that your freezer is not ‘frost free’ or ‘auto defrosting’ as constant freeze/thaw cycles will degrade the peptides over time.
Scientific & Educational
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